Government of West Bengal
 
 
 
Population Distribution Data
 
Scheduled Tribes
In West Bengal, as per 2001 Census report, the total population is 8,01,76,197 out of which, the Scheduled Tribes population is 44,06,794 constituting 5.50% of the total population. Out of which 22,23,924 are males and 21,82,870 are females. Due to low growth rate, the percentage of Scheduled Tribe population became 5.50 in 2001 from 5.59 during 1991. In this connection, it may be noted that the two Scheduled Tribes like Tamang and Limbu have been enlisted in the year 2003 after publication of the Census 2001, So, the population figures are not available at present.
 
In the district wise distribution of total Scheduled Tribe population it may be seen that the highest representation of Scheduled Tribe is in the district of Jalpaiguri (18.87%) followed by Purulia with (18.27%). Other districts with considerable high representation of Scheduled Tribe population are Dakshin Dinajpur with 16.12%, Paschim Medinipur with 14.67% and Darjeeling 12.69%. In this order, the lowest representation has been noticed in Kolkata district with only 0.21% as per 2001 Census.
 
State wise total Population, Population of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and their proportions to the total population
District wise Scheduled Caste population distribution (as per CENSUS of INDIA 2001)
Final Population Totals, West Bengal Caste wise Distribution of Scheduled Caste Population (as per CENSUS of INDIA 2001)
District wise Scheduled Tribe population distribution (as per CENSUS of INDIA 2001)
Final Population Totals, West Bengal Caste wise Distribution of Scheduled Tribe Population (as per CENSUS of INDIA 2001)
Data Highlights of the Scheduled Tribes (Census Data 2001)
Data Highlights of the Scheduled Caste (Census Data 2001)
Individual Caste wise Census Abstract 2001 (Scheduled Caste)
 
Out of 40 Scheduled Tribe Communities of the State, there are 9 communities, whose population jointly shares a little more than 90% of the total ST population of the State. These 9 communities are: Santal, Oraon, Munda, Bhumij, Kora, Mahali, Lodha/Kheria, Bhutia and Maipahariya. So, in other words it may be mentioned here that these 9 communities are the major tribal communities of the State. Incidentally it may be mentioned here that the Santal community alone contribute more than 54% of the total Scheduled Tribe population of the State.
 
Out of the Scheduled Tribe communities of the State, 3 communities namely Lodha, Birhor and Toto have been declared as Primitive Tribes by the Government of India. The total population of these three communities is 58,534 as per 2001 Census. The population of Lodha community is 57,028. There are 279 Birhors while the Toto has a population of 1227 persons. The Lodhas are mainly distributed in Medinipur and Bankura districts, the Birhors are found in Puruliya and the Totos are the inhabitants of Totopara of Jalpaiguri.
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Scheduled Caste
As per 2001 Census the total population of Scheduled Caste is 1,84,52,555 constituting 23.02% of the total population of the State. Out of which 94,69,659 are males and 89,82,896 are females. Considering the growth rate it may be noted that the percentage of Scheduled Caste became 23.02 in 2001 which was 23.62% during 1991.
 
In the district wise distribution of Scheduled Caste population it may be seen that the highest representation of Scheduled Caste population is in the district of Cooch Behar (50.11%) followed by Jalpaiguri (36.71%) and South 24-Parganas (32.12%). The other districts having high concentration of Scheduled Caste population are Bankura (31,24%), Nadia (29.66%), Birbhum (29.51%). The lowest concentration has been noticed in the district of Howrah (0.21%).
 
There are 60 Scheduled Caste Communities in West Bengal. Of them 6 communities (Rajbanshi, Bagdi, Namasudra, Poundra, Bauri, Chamar / Muchi) constitute 65.07% of the total Schedule Caste population of the State.
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Other Backward Classes
As per the Mondal list there are 177 Communities out of which 64 communities have been included in the Backward Class list of West Bengal. Out of which 51 have been listed in the Central List also. There are 13 communities of West Bengal which are not enlisted in the Central List. Due to non-availability of the Census figure it is not possible to state the population figure of Other Backward Classes.
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Literacy Rates
The literacy rates among the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes are very low. A statement showing rates of literacy as per Census during the period 1961 to 2001 is given below.
 

CENSUS YEAR

GENERAL

ST

SC

OTHER COMMUNITIES
(Non Scheduled)

1961

29.28

6.55

13.53

35.94

1971

33.20

8.92

17.80

39.19

1981

40.94

13.21

24.37

48.12

1991

57.70

27.78

42.21

64.98

2001

68.64

43.40

5904

7355

 
It appears from the above chart that 43.40% of the ST people are literate while 59.04% of SC people are literate as per census 2001. The literacy percentage of the SC, ST stands below the literacy percentage of general population which is 68.64%. Hence one of the thrust areas is development of educational facilities and educational standard of the SC, ST and more particularly among the Tribal families. The rate of literacy among the Tribal women is very low. Due to non­ availability of the Census figure it is not possible to state the exact literacy rate of Other Backward Classes.
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Occupation & Employment Opportunity
Employment opportunity and diversification of occupation from the traditional engagement are considered to be the indicators of the level of development of any society. According to 2001 Census report, there are 21,49,225 Scheduled Tribe population, which has been increased by 5.66% from the previous Census year i.e. 1991, where the percentage of total workers was 43.11. This change in the percentage of workers directly indicates that employment opportunity has been increased among the tribal folk and in tribal areas.
 
Among the total workers main and marginal workers constitute 65.70% and 34.30% respectively. Further, if one examine the occupational distribution as per 2001 Census one may find that 23.71% are cultivators, 45.09% are Agricultural Labourers, 2.20% in Household Industry and 29% are engaged in other services.
 
In this connection, it may be mentioned that during 1991, of the workers 80.44% were engaged in agricultural sector, which has decreased to 68.80% as per the present Census. On the other hand, there is a rise in the occupational category of other services, which is a positive change in their field of economy.
 
There are craft practicing communities among the Scheduled Caste of the State such as Dom, Hari / Methor and Turi as Bamboo works and basket makers, Karenga (wood crafts), Kami Lohar as Balcksmithy. There are 6 scavenger communities and 4 communities who are engaged in tanning and canning of hides and skins.
 
Out of the total working population of the Scheduled Caste communities, 52,91,661 (73.97%) have been recorded as main workers. Out of the Main Workers about 52.12% are engaged in agricultural activities either as cultivator 10,72,023 (20.26%) or as agriculture labourer 16,86,075 (31.86%). Those who get work less than 181 days i.e marginal workers share 26.02% of their total workers.
 
Communities enlisted as the Other Backward Class are engaged in different types of occupation and also some of them are sail adhered to their traditional avocation. There are 9 (nine) artisan classes known as Nava-sayaks like Karmakars, Shankakara etc. and they are regarded as clean Sudras.

There are 10 Muslim Communities in West Bengal Backward Classes list and two groups from Christian Communities are enlisted, one is Scheduled Caste converted Christian and another is Kosta.
 
 
 
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